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Flying Dinosaur Types- Ultimate Guide To Pterodactyl, Pterosaurs [And Flying Reptiles]

Key Takeaways

  • Flying reptiles, including non-Pterodyctloid and later Pterosaurs, were prevalent during the Mesozoic era.
  • The later pterosaurs had larger wingspans, enabling extended gliding, and more crest variation.
  • Pterosaurs’ physical adaptations included big brains for complex behaviors, thin hollow bones, and strong claws.
  • Despite an awkward ground posture, they were effective climbers and could walk using hind limbs.
  • Pterosaurs, the first flying vertebrates, varied in size from a sparrow to larger than a giraffe.
  • Though not actual dinosaurs, these flying reptiles contribute significantly to our understanding of the Mesozoic Era.

The prehistoric inland coastal areas were full of life during the Mesozoic Era. Dinosaurs and reptiles of multiple classifications existed for millions of years. I often think about what filled the prehistoric skies during this time, and it inevitably leads me to ask, what kind of flying dinosaur types existed during those millions of years?

Flying dinosaur types what were they

What Are The Main Flying Dinosaur Types?

So what are the main flying dinosaur types? It is more accurate to describe them as flying reptiles. The main types are Pterosaurs that are non-Pterodyctloid (known as Basal) and Pterosaurs that came at a later stage. All of them are Archosaurs with clades formed under the Pterosauromorpha classification.

Paleontologists have discovered many types of flying dinosaurs. Actually, flying reptiles is a more proper term, and we can discover how they differed from each other and understand their ancestors with the help of modern classification systems.

Excavated fossils from both the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods reflect the diverse group of flying dinosaurs, or pterosaurs, that once ruled the skies. Pterosaurs, comprising species like Pterodactyl, Pteranodon, Quetzalcoatlus, Dimorphodon, and Rhamphorhynchus, display a variety of unique physical features and flight mechanics, which aided their existence in diverse habitat types.

Paleontological studies reveal rich details about these airborne dinosaurs. For example, Pterodactyl, characterized by a crested head, boasted a modest wingspan. Conversely, Quetzalcoatlus, one of the largest known flying dinosaurs, brandished an impressive wingspan stretching to around 33 feet.

Physical distinctions further categorize these majestic creatures into toothed pterosaurs, such as Dimorphodon and Rhamphorhynchus, and toothless pterosaurs like Pteranodon and Quetzalcoatlus. Presence or absence of teeth significantly influenced their dietary habits; toothed pterosaurs primarily feasted on fish and other small prey, whereas their toothless counterparts favored a diet of carrion and smaller terrestrial prey.

These creatures, despite their adaptations and evolution, succumbed to extinction, joining the fate of most prehistoric creatures. Understanding the factors contributing to their demise remains an ongoing paleontological endeavor. Studying these extraordinary creatures opens insights into the biodiverse history of our planet and traces the narrative of evolution, offering a glimpse into the earth’s past.

There are over 1000 fossils found and identified by paleontologists, using modern taxonomy and cladograms. The most well-known flying dinosaur names are Pteranodon, Pterodactyl, Rhamphorhynchus, Dimorphodon, and Quetzalcoatlus. 

Pterosaurs, both basal and later stage, existed during all three periods of the Mesozoic Era. However, as mentioned, they were not flying dinosaurs. They were close cousins of the dinosaurs and more correctly termed as flying reptiles. Dinosaurs lacked the anatomy and wing structure to be able to fly. There are other key anatomical reasons and linkages to ancestors that keep flying reptiles out of being a dinosaur. 

Even though scientists found and classified fossil remains of close to 1500 Pterosaurs, they estimate that there are hundreds or more, which are new species still left to be found. The diversity of size, habitat, flying ability, diet, and additionally, the visual features makes learning about these flying reptiles even more exciting. Read on to find out more about these prehistoric flying creatures.

A Look At the Classifications and Clades

The clade Dinosauromorpha, acts as a linage that includes dinosaurs, birds, and a branch of flying reptiles. This branch, known as Avemetatarsalia, comprises unique flying reptiles that evolved from the Archosaur group. The Archosaur notable group, represents a significant evolutionary leap, and encompasses the dinosaur Campylognathoides with a wingspan stretching up to 1.85 meters, demonstrating the dawn of flight in dinosaurs.

In the same group exists Eudimorphodon, a multi-toothed pterosaur genus with a wingspan of up to 1 meter, marking an early diversification of these creatures. The Pterosauromorpha group, which birthed the Istiodactylus known for its distinct round teeth and wingspan up to 5 meters, showcases the level of adaptability in flying dinosaurs.

Pterosauromorpha, with its various species demonstrating different wingspans measured tip-to-tip, perfectly embodies the incredible diversity of flying dinosaurs during their reign.

Scientific classification or taxonomy helps understand animals by classifying them into groups based on similar characteristics, thereby identifying different types. It is based on the Linnaean classification, which was first used and developed by Carl Linnaeus in 1735.

Modern classification adds clades (groups) or cladograms (developed starting in the 1930s), which group animals based on their ancestor. For flying dinosaur types, cladograms are especially helpful because these flying reptiles are extinct, and it organizes the clades according to fossil remains, taking into consideration their ancestors. Let’s take a closer look!


Classification Overview of Flying Dinosaurs

Flying reptiles are Archosaurs. They are not dinosaurs but are related to them. To understand flying reptiles, it’s useful to look at the classification of Archosaurs (Source). Archosaurs of the clade Avemetatarsalia (from Nesbitt 2011 and 2017) have the clade Orinthodira, which branches out into two separate clades of Dinosauromorpha and Pterosauromorpha. It is here that you can start to understand how dinosaurs and flying reptiles are related. 

Figure 1 Classification of Archosaurs - AdventureDinosaurs (2)

In Figure 1, the classification of Archosaurs and the two branched clades of Dinosauromorpha and Pterosauromorpha are shown. The Dinosauromorpha clade has all the dinosaurs grouped, and the Pterosuromorpha clade has grouped all the flying reptiles. Interestingly, modern-day birds are in the clade of Dinosauromorpha and, as such, closely related to dinosaurs (Source). 

Figure 2 Classification of Pterosauria - AdventureDinosaurs

Basal Pterosaur Clades

On the basis of their size, ancestry, and features, the pterosaurs are generally divided into two main groups. The first type is called basal pterosaurs and second, later pterosaurs or just pterosaurs. We can say that the basal pterosaurs were the ancestors of later pterosaurs. Modern classification with cladograms also keeps this grouping as all are classified under Pterosauria, and the clades up to Pterodactyloidea are basal.

Basal Pterosaurs were the first flying reptiles and lived from the Triassic period up until the late-Cretaceous period’s mass extinction event. Although most of them had toothed jaws and snouts, it is not the main differentiator between the later Pterosaurs. The wingspan and larger brain cavity (scientists think this indicates advanced flying ability) were key differences between basal and later pterosaurs.

Later Pterosaur Clades

The later Pterosaurs are grouped under two clade branches, the Archaeopterodactyloidea and Eupterodactyloidea. In the Archeopterodactyloidea clade, you can find the Pterodactylus, Pteranodon, and Quetzalcoatlus, which are the more commonly known flying reptiles and what many people think of when talking about a “flying dinosaur” or reptile. From a classification perspective, they are also known as pterodactyloid. 

Figure 3 Classification of Pterodactyloidea - AdventureDinosaurs

In Figure 3, a simplified clade diagram is shown outlining the Archaeopterodactyloidea and Eupterodactyloidea clades. 

The later pterosaurs were noticeably larger, had more variety in the crest (length, height, or shape), and the wingspans were much larger as well, which enabled gliding for long distances. In terms of the skull differences, the snouts were more elongated (longer), and there were some without teeth. These flying reptiles lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, again going extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. 

Names of Flying Dinosaurs

As mentioned earlier, there have been about 1500 fossil discoveries of flying reptiles since the 18th century. It’s amazing what paleontologists discovered and how they were able to find so much information about them, often from partial skeletons or fragments. I’ve already gone over the classification and clades, now let’s get more concrete with names of pterosaurs and light descriptions. I’ll use the cladogram structure and keep the names as basal pterosaurs and later pterosaurs.

Basal Pterosaurs – Non-Pterodactyloid

In Table 1, we have a list of seven basal pterosaurs. In the first column is the name, in the second column, a description of identifying features or characteristics and the time period it lived. Lastly, I list where the fossils of the flying reptile were found. 

Table 1 - Names of Basel or Non-Pterodactyloid Flying Reptiles

Name Identifying Feature or Characteristic and Time PeriodWhere Fossil Found
DimorphodonTwo types of teeth in its jaws. Lived during the Jurassic periodUK, Mexico
RhamphorhynchusA long-tailed pterosaur. Lived during the Jurassic periodEngland, Spain, Portugal, Germany Tanzania
Arcticodactylus The smallest pterosaur known, with an estimated wingspan of 24 cm and also had the least amount of teeth. Lived during the Late Triassic periodGreenland
CampylognathoidesA long-tailed pterosaur that had a short snout in comparison to other species. The teeth were also smaller, much like fangs. Lived during the Triassic periodGermany
SordesA pterosaur with short wings and had the wing membranes attached to the legs. Lived during the late-JurassicKazakhstan
PterorhynchusA pterosaur that had a long skull with a crest and also a long tail. Wingspan of about 33 inches or 85 cm. Lived during the mid-JurassicInner Mongolia, China
AnurognathusA small pterosaur that is know for not having a tail, unlike other pterosaurs. Had a rounded skull and snout. Lived during the Jurassic periodGermany
Name Identifying Feature or Characteristic and Time PeriodWhere Fossil Found

The Pterodactyloids Names

In Table 2, it follows the same structure as Table 1 and shows the later pterosaurs

Table 2 - Names of Pterodactyloid Flying Reptiles

NameIdentifying Feature or Characteristic and Time PeriodWhere Fossil Found
Pterodactylus antiquusThe name of the first pterosaur genus that was named and identified as a flying reptile. Commonly known as pterodactyls. Lived during the Jurassic periodGermany
PterodaustroA later type of pterosaur that had a long skull, large eye sockets and teeth that served to strain small creatures from the water. Did not have teeth like other pterosaurs. Lived during the Cretaceous periodArgentina, Chile
MoganopterusA later pterosaur that had the largest skull of any pterosaur that was toothed. It had a unique crest and skull formation. Lived during the early Cretaceous periodChina
PteranodonAlmost 1200 fossils of this later pterosaur have been found. Long wingspan, toothless beaks, and the crest that was made of bone. Lived during the late Cretaceous periodUSA - Kansas, Alabama, Nebraska, Wyoming, South Dakota
IstiodactylusA later pterosaur that was large, with a shorter skull and a bit broader compared to other pterosaurs. It had 48 interlocked teeth. Lived during the early Cretaceous periodUK
QuetzalcoatlusA later pterosaur that was the largest known flying animal and flying reptile. It had a sharp and pointed beak and also a crest on the skull. Computer modeling estimated it could reach a speed of 80 mph / 130 km per hour. Wing span was 36-39ft (11-12 meters). Lived during the late Cretaceous periodUSA - Texas
TupandactylusA later pterosaur that had a large crest made of bone and arched over the head. In some species, it also had a long crest like the Pteranodon. Lived during the early Cretaceous periodBrazil
Name Identifying Feature or Characteristic and Time PeriodWhere Fossil Found

Wing Span Sizes, Other Anatomical Characteristics, and Other Interesting Facts

The pterosaurs had marked their presence for the first time about 228 million years ago in the Mesozoic era at the late Triassic period, along with dinosaurs. During that time, they had roamed the earth for more than 150 million years, and they disappeared from the earth about 66 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous period. 

One of the striking features of pterosaurs is their wingspan. The largest pterosaurs had huge wingspans and were designed for gliding long distances. However, there was also a large variation in the shape of the skull and the crest. 

Wingspan of Flying Dinosaur Types

What’s interesting is that the different sizes of Pterosaurs are directly connected to the size of their wingspan. So, in the following table, I have arranged the different wingspans of Pterosaur. As there are many fossils found and classified, this is just a tiny snapshot, but it gives you a glimpse that there was just about every size of flying dinosaur types imaginable (Source).

Table 3 -Wingspans of Flying Reptiles

Name and Time PeriodWing Span measurement - average/full adultSmall - Medium - Large
Pterodactylus antiquus3.5 ft (1.1m)Small
Pterodaustro8.2 ft ( 2.5m)Medium
Moganopterus23 ft (7m)Large
Pteranodon18ft (5.6m)Large
Istiodactylus26ft (8m)Large
Quetzalcoatlus36-39ft (11–12m)Large
Dimorphodon4.6ft (1.5m)Medium
Rhamphorhynchus 5.9ft (1.8m)Medium
Arcticodactylus3.3ft (1m) - estimate from closest ancestor EudimorphodonMedium
Campylognathoides6ft (1.8m)Small
Sordes2ft (0.6m)Small
Pterorhynchus2.8ft (0.9m)Small
Anurognathus1.8ft (0.5m) Small
Name and Time PeriodWing Span measurement - average/full adultSmall - Medium - Large

At first, it was thought that the pterosaurs could not have an active flight like modern-day birds. They only flew by gliding in the air. Later, with skeleton studies of flying reptiles, they had a big brain used for complex behaviors during flight, well-developed optic lobes, very thin hollow bones (air-filled), and, additionally, they possessed many crests on their bones and a breastbone attached with flight muscles. These studies suggest that they had an active flight mechanism (flapping wings to generate flight).

More About the Anatomy of Pterosaurs 

Based on the fossils found, basal pterosaurs had jaws filled densely with teeth, and their tails were quite long. One odd feature is that they had their hind legs attached with wide wings membranes. These flying reptiles looked awkward standing on the ground due to their posture. But they were the most effective climbers by having the strong claws. Their small size suggests that they may have habituated on different trees. They had mostly fed on insects, so we can say that they were the insectivores or predators of insects.

flying dinosaur types what were they

The later pterosaurs‘ wings (narrow wings) were not attached to the hind legs. They had smaller tails, longer necks, and quite a bigger head with a well-developed brain (which had helped them in complex behaviors of active flight). They had a unique posture for walking on the ground, and they were able to walk with the help of their hind limbs.

A Unique Flying Reptile – What Other Abilities Did Scansoriopterygidae Dinosaurs Have?

Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs possessed a unique set of abilities that distinguished them from other dinosaurs. While they too had feathers, their feather structure differed from that of Dromaeosaurids, lacking the long feathers commonly associated with them. Instead, Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs had wings resembling those of bats, characterized by a bat-like membrane. Adaptations in their hands included an elongated finger digit and a rod-like wrist bone, which facilitated the formation of these distinctive wings.

In addition to their wing structure, Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs exhibited traits suggesting their aptitude for arboreal (tree-dwelling) lifestyles. They possessed specialized claws and hindlimbs that hinted at their climbing abilities, enabling them to traverse tree branches. Similar to certain gliding mammals today, it is believed that Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs would glide from tree to tree within the forest canopy. This suggests a remarkable ability for aerial movement and adaptive behavior within arboreal environments.

In addition to possessing unique bat-like wings, Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs were likely proficient climbers, indicating their arboreal nature. Their capacity for gliding from tree to tree further emphasized their adaptation to forest environments. These combined abilities granted them a distinct ecological niche within the dinosaur kingdom.

How Did Scansoriopterygidae Dinosaurs Fly?

The Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs, a group of tiny dinosaurs from the Jurassic period, had an interesting approach to flight. Unlike other dinosaurs like the Dromaeosaurids, they evolved unique bat-like wings. Instead of possessing long feathers, these dinosaurs had a membrane-like structure for their wings. Their wings were formed by an elongated finger digit and a rod-like wrist bone, which allowed them to glide from tree to tree in forest canopies.

Recent research conducted by Dececchi et al. (2020) shed light on the flying capabilities of these dinosaurs. It was discovered that Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs lacked the necessary adaptations in their pectoral and sternum regions for powered flight. Additionally, their wings did not generate enough wing-loading force for sustained flight. However, aerodynamic studies revealed that these dinosaurs were able to glide similarly to modern-day gliding mammals.

The features of their claws and hindlimbs suggest that these dinosaurs were arboreal, meaning they dwelled in trees. This arboreal lifestyle allowed them to utilize their bat-like wings for gliding between trees within the forest canopy. Notable examples of Scansoriopterygidae dinosaurs include Yi qi, Epidexipteryx hui, and Scansoriopteryx heilmanni. Ranging in size from the largest Yi qi, which had a wingspan of nearly 2 feet, to the smallest Scansoriopteryx, comparable to the size of a house sparrow, these dinosaurs showcased a variety of adaptations that enabled them to navigate the aerial realm using their unique bat-like wings.

Other Interesting Facts About Pterosaurs and Flying Reptiles

To finish off this article on flying dinosaur names and types, here are some interesting facts about Pterosaurs:

● A Pterosaur had a life span between 10 to 25 years.

Pterosaurs walked on all four (using its wing limbs) instead of modern-day birds that walk on two legs.

● The back legs of Pterosaurs had four fingers, and the wings legs had three fingers, which had helped them climb easily.

Pterosaurs were the first-ever reptiles and vertebrates that were capable of flying.

● Interestingly, these reptiles did not survive the late-Cretaceous mass extinction event and vanished completely from the earth. Their bones are fragile and unable to preserved completely, so fossils are often incomplete or not salvageable.


● Despite the similarity, species of birds and bats are not related to Pterosaurs, but the membrane of Pterosaur wings are quite similar to the membrane of bats wings.

● The common name “Pterosaur” was the first time used in the 18th century and used for identifying flying reptiles.

● The smallest flying reptile was with the size of a sparrow, and the largest one was bigger than a giraffe.

● Male Pterosaurs possessed a head crest, but female Pterosaurs had none. It is thought that those crests were used for sexual displays or signals. 

● The size of a male Pterosaur was greater than that of the females.

● The Pterodactyl was the first Pterosaur who was discovered and identified. These Pterodactyls were thought to be diurnal, meaning they were only active in the day time.

Which Group of Dinosaurs Experimented with Flight?

The Mesozoic Era, known as the age of dinosaurs, witnessed not only the reign of land-dwelling giants but also the remarkable emergence of flying creatures. However, it is important to note that technically, no flying dinosaurs existed, but rather, there were flying reptiles that did not fit the classification of dinosaurs or birds. These magnificent creatures were known as pterosaurs, and they took to the skies with astonishing grace.

Among the pterosaurs, the Pterodactyls soared with their enormous wingspans and extended beaks, capturing the imagination of both scientists and enthusiasts alike. Their existence during this era showcased the incredible diversity of flying beings. Additionally, the Pteranodon, with its majestic size and distinctive crested head, left an indelible mark on the skies, captivating all who gazed upon it.

But let us not overlook the remarkable diversity within the fossil records of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, which provide invaluable insights into the world of flying dinosaurs. These records reveal a wide array of species that took to the skies, showcasing the breathtaking range of adaptations and forms that evolved. For instance, the toothed Ludodactylus and the enigmatic Hatzegopteryx stand as testament to the unique and awe-inspiring features displayed by these airborne marvels.

While it is true that the question of which group of dinosaurs experimented with flight is intriguing, it is important to acknowledge that the Dromaeosaurids, a group of dinosaurs, played an essential role in this exploration of flight. They continued to experiment with flight even after birds had branched off, leading to the emergence of various clades within their ranks. Notably, the Microraptors, Unenlagiines, and Eudromaeosaurids stand out as prime examples of these flying endeavors. Their striking resemblance to early birds has sparked ongoing debates among paleontologists, who grapple with the challenge of drawing the elusive line between Dromaeosaurids and birds.

While pterosaurs may not be classified as dinosaurs, their presence during the Mesozoic Era enriches our understanding of the incredible range of flying creatures that once graced our ancient skies. Simultaneously, the Dromaeosaurids, a group of dinosaurs, embarked on their own extraordinary journey of flight experimentation, pushing the boundaries of what was previously thought possible. Through the intricate tapestry woven by the fossil records, we gain deeper insights into the wonders of evolution and the captivating world of prehistoric flight.

Here are some recommended dinosaur books that you might find interesting:

  1. “The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World” by Steve Brusatte (2018) – This book offers an engaging and accessible read for both dinosaur enthusiasts and casual readers. Written by a renowned paleontologist, it provides a good balance of detail and readability. The author’s storytelling approach makes it a great option for those looking to learn about dinosaurs in an enjoyable way.
  2. “Dinosaurs Rediscovered: The Scientific Revolution in Paleontology” by Michael J. Benton (2019) – If you’re interested in the latest discoveries and how they have reshaped our understanding of dinosaurs, this book is a must-read. It discusses the scientific advancements and breakthroughs of the past two decades, delving into various aspects such as dinosaur colors, speeds, bite force, and even their parenting behaviors. With its up-to-date information and well-structured chapters, this book will provide you with a comprehensive overview of the current state of paleontology.

I highly recommend checking out the reviews and sample pages of these books to see if they align with your interests and preferences. Happy reading!

Final Thoughts

The dinosaur world doesn’t seem complete without flying dinosaurs. Even if they weren’t real dinosaurs, the skies somehow need to have something flying around. We now know that these flying reptiles did more than fly around – they glided, scrambled around on all four limbs, climbed, and were powerful flying hunters. Amazingly, paleontologists have classified so many different flying dinosaur types, and this is a reminder of how diverse life was during the Mesozoic Era.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Are Pterosaurs?

Pterosaurs are a group of extinct flying reptiles that lived during the Late Jurassic and the Late Cretaceous periods. They are not dinosaurs, but are often referred to as “flying dinosaurs” because they lived during the same time as dinosaurs.

What Is the Largest Flying Reptile?

The largest flying reptile known is Quetzalcoatlus, which had a wingspan of up to 36 feet.

When Were Pterosaurs First Discovered?

The first pterosaur fossil was discovered in 1784.

Did Pterosaurs Have Feathers?

No, pterosaurs did not have feathers. They had a leathery membrane stretched between their elongated fourth fingers, which formed their wings.

Did Pterosaurs Become Extinct?

Yes, pterosaurs became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period, along with the majority of non-avian dinosaurs.

Could Pterosaurs Fly?

Yes, pterosaurs were able to fly. They were well-adapted for powered flight and have been found all over the world.

What Did Pterosaurs Eat?

Pterosaurs likely ate a variety of small animals, including fish, insects, and other small reptiles.

How Big Were the Smallest Pterosaurs?

The smallest known pterosaurs had a wingspan of only about 10 inches.

Are There Any Living Descendants of Pterosaurs?

No, there are no living descendants of pterosaurs. However, modern birds are considered to be their closest living relatives.

How Many Different Types of Pterosaurs Are Known?

There are currently around 150 known species of pterosaurs, ranging in size from small to very large.